Fisheries Conflict Research Consortium - Publications

fisheries research


The Fisheries Conflict Research Consortium (FCRC) aims to understand the drivers and impacts of fisheries conflict and disseminate this knowledge to relevant stakeholders. Below is a list of relevant publications from FCRC members:


Challenges in the management of small-scale marine fisheries conflicts in Ghana. 2021. Godfred A. Ameyaw, Martin Tsamenyi, Alistair McIlgorm, Denis W. Aheto. 

Effectiveness of interventions to shift drivers of roving banditry and reduce illegal fishing by Vietnamese blue boats. 2021. Chris Wilcox, Brock J. Bergseth. 

Climate bones of contention: How climate variability influences territorial, maritime, and river interstate conflicts. 2021. Cody Schmidt, Bomi Lee, Sara McLaughlin Mitchell. 

Ocean safaris or food: characterizing competitive interactions between recreational and artisanal fisheries on the coast of Kenya. 2021. Isigi Kadagi, Nina Wambiji, Dyhia Belhabib, Robert Ahrens. 

Exploring the future of fishery conflict through narrative scenarios. 2021. Jessica Spijkers, Andrew Merrie, Colette C.C. Wabnitz, Matthew Osborne, Malin Mobjörk, Örjan Bodin, Elizabeth R. Selig, Philippe Le Billon, Cullen S. Hendrix, Gerald G. Singh, Patrick W. Keys, Tiffany H. Morrison.

Ocean seascapes predict distant‐water fishing vessel incursions into exclusive economic zones. 2021. A. John Woodill, Maria Kavanaugh, Michael Harte, James R. Watson 

“Managing Fisheries Conflict in the 21st Century: A Role for Regional Management Organizations?” 2021. Cullen Hendrix, Zachary Lien. 

“Beyond IUU Fishing & Fisheries Crime: State-Protected Illicit Fishing.” 2021. Ian Ralby. 

“Crossover Criminal Vessels: A Growing Illicit Maritime Trend.” 2021. Ian Ralby

“Looking past Gulf of Guinea Piracy: Chinese Twins, ‘Ghanaian’ Fishing, and Domain Awareness.” 2021. Ian Ralby. 

“Gulf of Guinea piracy: a symptom, not a cause, of insecurity.” 2021. Ifesinachi Okafor-Yarwood, Timothy Walker, and Denys Reva.


Wealth blindness beyond national jurisdiction. 2020. Rachel Tiller, Elizabeth De Santo, Elizabeth Mendenhall, Elizabeth Nyman, Ian Ralby. 

Climate change increases the risk of fisheries conflict. 2020. Elizabeth Mendenhall, Cullen Hendrix, Elizabeth Nyman, Paige Roberts, John R Hoopes, James Watson, Vicky Lam, Rashid Sumaila.

Illicit trade in marine fish catch and its effects on ecosystems and people worldwide. 2020. Rashid Sumaila, Dirk Zeller, Hood L, Palomares MLD, Li Y, Pauly D. 

Potential for conflicts in recreational and artisanal billfish fisheries on the coast of Kenya. 2020. Isigi Kadagi, Nina Wambiji, ME Swisher.

Editorial: Illegal Fishing as a Trans-National Crime. 2020. Dyhia Belhabib, Philippe LeBillion. 

Clashes at Sea: Explaining the Onset, Militarization, and Resolution of Diplomatic Maritime Claims. 2020. Sara McLaughlin Mitchell. 

Narco‐Fish: Global fisheries and drug trafficking. 2020. Dyhia Belhabib, Philippe LeBillion. 

Climate change, shifting threat points, and the management of transboundary fish stocks. 2020. Rashid Sumaila, Juliano Palacios-Abrantes, William W. L. Cheung. 

“Rough seas: the causes and consequences of fisheries conflict in Somali waters.” 2020. Colleen Devlin, Sarah Glaser, Ciera Villegas, Tasia Poinsatte. 

“Fisheries Management: A Possible Venue for Navigating Fisheries Conflicts in the Indian Ocean.” 2020. Isigi Kadagi, Zachary Lien, Cullen Hendrix. 

“Storm surges and crime waves: law enforcement during natural disasters.” 2020. Tellis Bethel, Ian Ralby. 

“As Profits Vanish Upstream, Criminals Will Turn Downstream.” 2020. David Soud, Ian Ralby, Rohini Ralby. 

“Nigerian Navy Thwarts Hijacking of Chinese Fishing Vessel.” 2020. Ian Ralby. 

“From suppliers to scapegoats: Yemeni fishers in Somali waters at the height of piracy.” 2020. Colleen Devlin. 

“Crisis Response When the Status Quo is a Crisis.” 2020. Ian Ralby, Tellis Bethel. 

“The United States Needs a Natural Security Strategy to Regain Our Global Leadership.” 2020. Sherri Goodman, Johan Bergenäs. 

“Organised Crime in the Fisheries Sector.” 2020. Emma Witbooi, Kamal-Deen Ali and Mas Achmad Santosa, Gail Hurley, Yunus Husein, Sarika Maharaj, Ifesinachi Okafor-Yarwood, Inés Arroyo Quiroz, Omar Salas.

“Our next president needs to understand that natural security is national security.” 2020. Sherri Goodman, Johan Bergenäs. 

“Climate Change as an Unconventional Security Risk.” 2020. Cullen Hendrix. 

“A Looming Calamity: Will Secretary Pompeo Seal the Fate of the Red Sea?” 2020. Ian Ralby, David Soud, Rohini Ralby. 

“A Stalemate in Yemen Jeopardizes the Future of the Red Sea.” 2020. David Soud, Ian Ralby, Rohini Ralby, Alia Eshaq & Luai Eshaq. 

“Evolution of the Fleet: A Closer Look at the Chinese Fishing Vessels off the Galapagos.” 2020. Ian Ralby, Tabitha Mallory. 

“Making Maritime Strategy Work: A New Taxonomy.” 2020. Ian Ralby.

“Maritime Crime During the Pandemic: Unmasking Trends in the Caribbean.” 2020. Ian Ralby, Michael Jones, Errington Shurland. 

“Spyglass' Reveals Fisheries Crime.” 2020. Dyhia Belhabib. 


The once and future treaty: Towards a new regime for biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. 2019. Rachel Tiller, Elizabeth De Santo, Elizabeth Mendenhall, Elizabeth Nyman.

Energy resources and the risk of conflict in shared river basins. 2019. Sojeong Lee, Sara McLaughlin Mitchell. 

A Carding System as an Approach to Increasing the Economic Risk of Engaging in IUU Fishing? 2019. Rashid Sumaila. 

Armed conflict and fisheries in the Lake Victoria basin. 2019. Sarah Glaser, Cullen Hendrix, Brittany Frank, Karin Wedig, Les Kaufman. 

Global patterns of fisheries conflict: Forty years of data. 2019. Jessica Spijkers, Gerald Singh, Robert Blasiak, Tiffany H.Morrison, Philippe Le Billon, Henrik Österblom. 

Countering a climate of instability: The future of relative stability under the Common Fisheries Policy. 2019. Michael Harte, Rachel Tiller, George Kailis, Merrick Burden. 

Catching industrial fishing incursions into inshore waters of Africa from space. 2019. Dyhia Belhabib, William W. L. Cheung, David Kroodsma, Vicky W. Y. Lam, Philip J. Underwood, John Virdin. 

Foreign illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing in Somali waters perpetuates conflict. 2019. Sarah Glaser, Paige Roberts, Kaija Hurlburt. 

Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, and the complexities of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) for countries in the Gulf of Guinea. 2019. Ifesinachi Okafor-Yarwood. 

“Marine genetic resources: a new frontier for fisheries conflict?” 2019. Elizabeth Nyman 

“Defining The Invisible Supply Chain.” 2019.  Ian Ralby, David Soud, Rohini Ralby.  

“Who's in your backyard? Strengthening maritime domain awareness in the Western Indian Ocean.” 2019. Robert Mazurek, Laura Burroughs.

“Mapping the Invisible Supply Chain.” 2019.  Ian Ralby, David Soud, Rohini Ralby.

“Addressing the Invisible Supply Chain.” 2019. Ian Ralby, David Soud, Rohini Ralby. 

“From Joseph Kony to Nile Perch: Complex Links Hook Armed Conflict to Fisheries.” 2019. Sarah Glaser, Cullen Hendrix. 

“The Gold Rush in Venezuela Could Destabilize Latin America and the Caribbean.” 2019. David Soud.  

“Trick or Treat: Brexit is a Halloween horror story for Europe's fisheries.” 2019. Michael Harte, Rachel Tiller.

“Strengthening maritime resources to combat illegal fishing in the Indian Ocean.” 2019. Robert Mazurek.

“Hidden in Plain Sight: Fishing Boats as Links in Illicit Supply Chains.” 2019. Ian Ralby, David Soud, Rohini Ralby. 

“Fisheries partnerships: combating illegal fishing to strengthen maritime security and environmental sustainability.” 2019. 

What’s happening below deck? 2019. Johan Bergenas.

Interpreting the law of the sea ‘regime of islands’: An opportunity for productive US leadership. 2019. Elizabeth Mendenhall.


Assessing Guinea Bissau's Legal and Illegal Unreported and Unregulated Fisheries and the Surveillance Efforts to Tackle Them. 2018. Jeremias Francisco Intchama, Dyhia Belhabib, Raul Joaquim Tomás Jumpe. 

“Fish Wars: the Causes and Consequences of Fisheries Conflict in Tanzania.” 2018. Sarah Glaser, Colleen Devlin, Josh Lambert, Ciera Villegas. 

“Oceanic change, fisheries, and future interstate conflict.” 2018. Jessica Spijkers.

Modern slavery and the race to fish. 2018. David Tickler, Jessica Meeuwig, Katharine Bryant, Fiona David, John A. H. Forrest, Elise Gordon, Jacqueline Joudo Larsen, Beverly Oh, Daniel Pauly, U. Rashid Sumaila, Dirk Zeller.2018.

Impacts of anthropogenic and natural “extreme events” on global fisheries. 2018. Dyhia Belhabib, Raouf Dridi, Allan Padilla, Melanie Ang, Philippe LeBillon.

When disaster strikes, go fish. 2018. By Ben Goldfarb. Interview with Dyhia Belhabib, Cullen Hendrix.

The fish wars are coming. 2018. Interview with Johan Bergenas.

Marine fisheries and future ocean conflict. 2018. Jessica Spijkers, Tiffany H Morrison, Robert Blasiak, Graeme S Cumming, Matthew Osborne, James Watson, Henrik Österblom

Like water and oil: fish as a geostrategic resource. 2018. Johan Bergenas.

Could the new fighting between Russia and Ukraine escalate into all-out war? 2018. Sara McLaughlin Mitchell.

The U.K.-France ‘Scallop Wars’ won’t be the last fisheries conflict. 2018. Johan Bergenas.

Fish wars: the causes and consequences of fisheries conflict in Tanzania. 2018. Sarah Glaser, Colleen Devlin, Joshua Lambert, Ciera Villegas, Natasia Poinsatte.

Fishing in dangerous waters? How narratives of piracy and insecurity shaped development initiatives in the Somaliland fishery sector. 2018. Amanda Rasmussen, Stig Jensen.

Shining a light on the modern day pirates pillaging our seas. 2018. Johan Bergenas.

As Mexico tries to curb illegal fishing, drug cartels and fishermen push back. 2018. Interview with David Soud, Johan Bergenas.

Casting a wider net. 2018. Amanda Shaver, Sally Yozell.

Indigenous women respond to fisheries conflict and catalyze change in governance on Canada’s Pacific Coast. 2018. Sarah Harper, Anne Salomon, Dianne Newell, Pauline Hilistis Waterfall, Kelly Brown, Leila Harris, U. Rashid Sumaila.

Building coalitions to stop illegal fishing in the Western Indian Ocean. 2018. Robert Mazurek.

The case for a whole-of-Africa maritime dialogue. 2018. Ian Ralby.

Oceanic change, fisheries and future interstate conflict. 2018. Jessica Spjikers.

Preparing ocean governance for species on the move. 2018. Malin Pinsky, Gabriel Reygondeau, Richard Caddell, Juliano Palacios-Abrantes, Jessica Spijkers, William Cheung.

China must join the war on illegal fishing. 2018. Sally Yozell.

US must help curb illegal fishing, terrorism, piracy, drug sales. 2018. Amanda Shaver, Sally Yozell.

Tax havens are the tip of the iceberg. 2018. Dyhia Belhabib, Philippe LeBillon.

The death of open access in Lake Victoria. 2018. Sarah Glaser.

Eight reasons you care about IUU fishing - you just don’t know it yet. 2018. Sarah Glaser.

Exclusive ODP Our Ocean interview. 2018. Interview with Sally Yozell.

Fisheries in Somali waters: Reconstruction of domestic and foreign catches for 1950-2015. 2018.Tim Cashion, Sarah Glaser, Lo Persson, Paige Roberts, Dirk Zeller.

The economics of fishing the high seas. 2018. Enric Sala, Juan Mayorga, Christopher Costello, David Kroodsma, Maria Palomares, Daniel Pauly, U. Rashid Sumaila, Dirk Zeller.

Catching maritime criminals: a whole of government approach. 2018. Robert Mazurek, Laura Burroughs.


War, fish, and foreign fleets: The marine fisheries catches of Sierra Leone 1950–2015. 2017. Katherine Seto, Dyhia Belhabib, Josephus Mamie, Duncan Copeland, Jan Michael Vakily, Heiko Seilert, Andrew Baio, Sarah Harper, Dirk Zeller, Kyrstn Zylich, Daniel Pauly.

The clear and present danger to the Norwegian sovereignty of the Svalbard Fisheries Protection Zone: Enter the snow crab. 2017. Rachel Tiller, Elizabeth Nyman.

Cooperative security to counter cooperative criminals. 2017. Ian Ralby.

From sea blindness to wealth blindness. 2017. Ian Ralby.

Approaches to piracy, armed robbery at sea, and other maritime crime in west and central Africa, in Militarised Responses to Transnational Organised Crime: The War on Crime. 2017. Ian Ralby.

Managing conflicts in the marine fisheries sectors in Ghana. 2017.
Godfred Asiedu. PhD Thesis.

Fish wars: how fishing can start and stop conflict. 2017. Sarah Glaser.

One in 10 interstate disputes are fishy – and the implications stink. 2017. Cullen Hendrix, Paige Roberts.

Marine resource scarcity, fisheries conflict and maritime insecurity. 2017. Robert Pomeroy, John Parks.
Sustainable Security. Oxford Research Group, 25 September 2017.

The next resource war may be over illegal fishing. Is the U.S. ready? 2017. Johan Bergenas.

The fishing wars are coming. 2017. James G. Stavridis, Johan Bergenas.

Fish, food security, and violent conflict. 2017. Laura Burroughs.

Filling the maritime law enforcement gap. 2017. Scott Cheney-Peters.

Bones of democratic contention: maritime disputes. 2017. Kelly Daniels, Sara McLaughlin Mitchell.

Natural Security Series: global security and illegal fishing in Somalia. 2017. Sally Yozell.

Outpaced by events: our aging Law of the Sea. 2017. Elizabeth Nyman.

Environmental change and social conflict: the northeast Atlantic mackerel dispute. 2017. Jessica Spijkers, WJ Boonstra.

Civil-military cooperation to combat Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated fishing: A summary of the September 2017 National Maritime Interagency Advisory group meeting. 2018. Emma Myers, Sally Yozell.

Stable Seas: Somali Waters. 2017. Curtis Bell, Ben Lawellin, Alexandra Amling, Jay Benson, Sasha Egrova, John Filitz, Maisie Pigeon, Paige Roberts.


Drivers and impacts of fisheries scarcity, competition, and conflict on maritime security. 2016. Robert Pomeroy, John Parks, Karina Lorenz Mrakovcich, ChristopherLaMonica.

Why illegal fishing is becoming a national security issue. 2016. Johan Bergenas.

A human security approach to maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea. 2016. Ian Ralby.

War and wildlife: linking armed conflict to conservation. 2016. Kaitlyn Gaynor, Kathryn Fiorella,  Gillian Gregory,  David Kurz,  Katherine Seto, Lauren Withey, Justin Brashares.

Secure oceans: collaborative policy and technology recommendations for the world’s largest crime scene. 2016. Johan Bergenas, Ariella Knight.

Fishing for weapons. 2016. Paige Roberts.


Winners and losers in a world where the high seas is closed to fishing. 2015. Rashid Sumaila, Vicky Lam, Dana Miller, Louise Teh, Reg Watson, Dirk Zeller, William Cheung, Isabelle Côté, Alex Rogers, Callum Roberts, Enric Sala, Daniel Pauly.

Fishing wars: China’s aggression could stoke future conflict. 2015. Johan Bergenas, Ariella Knight.

Fishing for war: how to avoid a war with China over seafood – and take a bite in world poverty. 2015. Johan Bergenas.

Resource curse in reverse: How civil wars influence natural resource production. 2012. Sara McLaughlin Mitchell, Cameron Thies.

Having the cake and eating it too: fisheries management cooperation between Norway and Russia in the Svalbard fisheries protection zone as an institutionalization tool. 2015. Rachel Tiller, Elizabeth Nyman.

Colonialism, conflict, and fish: a reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for Sierra Leone, 1950-2010. 2015. Katherine Seto, Dyhia Belhabib, Duncan Copeland, Michael Vakily, Heiko Seilert, Salieu Sankoh, Andrew Baio, Ibrahim Turay, Sarah Harper.

Contesting the Arctic: Politics and Imaginaries in the Circumpolar North. 2015. Hannes Gerhardt, Philip Steinberg, Jeremy Tasch, Adam Keul, Elizabeth Nyman.

How illegal fishing threatens development and security. 2015. Johan Bergenas, Ariella Knight.


Fisheries, ecosystem justice and piracy: A case study of Somalia. 2014. U. Rashid Sumaila, Mahamudu Bawumia.

Ruling the sea: managing maritime conflicts through UNCLOS and exclusive economic zones. 2014. Stephen Nemeth, Sara McLaughlin Mitchell, Elizabeth Nyman, Paul Hensel.

Wildlife decline and social conflict. 2014. Justin Brashares, Briana Abrahms, Kathryn Fiorella, Christopher Golden, Cheryl Hojnowski, Ryan Marsh, Douglas McCauley, Tristan Nuñez, Katherine Seto, Lauren Withey.


Oceans of conflict?: determining potential areas of maritime disputes. 2013. Elizabeth Nyman.


Culture, economics, and maritime disputes: Barbados and the flying Fish. 2012. Elizabeth Nyman.

Revisiting fish wars: Conflict and collaboration over fisheries in Indonesia. 2012. Umi Muawanah, Robert Pomeroy, Cliff Marlessy.

Climate change impacts on fisheries in West Africa: implications for economic, food and nutritional security. 2012. Vicky Lam, William Cheung, Wilf Swartz, U. Rashid Sumaila.

Norwegian aquaculture expansion and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM): simmering conflicts and competing claims. 2012. Rachel Tiller, Tove Brekken, Jennifer Bailey. 2012.

Unreported fishing, hungry people and political turmoil: the recipe for a food security crisis in Madagascar? 2012. Frederic Le Manach, Charlotte Gough, Alasdair Harris, Frances Humber, Sarah Harper, Dirk Zeller.


Civil conflict and world fisheries, 1952–2004. 2011. Cullen Hendrix and Sarah Glaser.


Illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries catch in Raja Ampat Regency, Eastern Indonesia. 2010. Divya A Varkey, Cameron Ainsworth, Tony Pitcher, Yohanis Goram, U. Rashid Sumaila.

Few data but many fish: Marine small-scale fisheries catches for Mozambique and Tanzania. 2010. Jennifer Jacquet, Helen Fox, Helena Motta, Amani Ngusaru, Dirk Zeller.


Fish wars: Conflict and collaboration in fisheries management in Southeast Asia. 2007. Robert Pomeroy, John Parks, Richard Pollnac, Tammy Campson, Emmanuel Genio, Cliff Marlessy, Elizabeth Holle, Michael Pido, Ayut Nissapa, Somsak Boromthanarat, Nguyen Thu Hue.


Global scope and economics of illegal fishing. 2006. U. Rashid Sumaila, Jackie Alder, H. Keith.


Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas. 2003. Tundi Agardy, Peter Bridgewater, Michael Crosby, Jon Day, Paul Dayton, Richard Kenchington, Dan Laffoley, Patrick McConney, Peter Murray, John Parks, Lelei Peau.


The political ecology of war: natural resources and armed conflicts. 2001. Philippe Le Billon.


Beyond territorial contiguity: Issues at stake in democratic militarized interstate disputes. 1999. Sara McLaughlin Mitchell, Brandon Prins.